Challenges and opportunities
Population ageing is a result of successful economic and social development. The Asia-Pacific region is ageing at unprecedented pace. Older persons, defined as those aged 60 years or over, amount to 670 million in 2022. Older persons accounted for 14 per cent of the total population in 2022. By 2050, 26 per cent of the total population are projected to be 60 years or over. Older women outnumber older men due to their higher life expectancy at birth, with 54 per cent of the older population being women. Detailed data on population ageing and the situation of older persons can be accessed through this website.
Older women and men actively contribute to economies and societies through paid work as well as unpaid care work. Yet, older persons are at higher risk of falling into poverty and often lack access to adequate resources, services and participation. Promoting the participation of older persons, as well as social protection, and promoting women’s economic participation throughout the life-cycle are important to ensure sustainable development in ageing societies. Gender inequality and discrimination against women throughout the life cycle are often perpetuated into old age, making older women particularly vulnerable to old-age poverty.
Providing access to healthcare, including long-term care, is crucial in ageing societies. With the rise in non-communicable diseases in old age, which contribute to health care costs, innovative policies, such as the use of ICTs need to be found to promote access to age-friendly healthcare services. With adequate policies population ageing can be turned into opportunity.
In recognizing these challenges, ESCAP is guided by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its clarion call to leave no-one behind. On population ageing, ESCAP is particularly guided by the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA), the global guiding document on this topic. MIPAA marked a turning point of how the world addresses the key challenge of “building a society for all ages”. MIPAA seeks “to promote increased opportunities, in particular opportunities for older persons to realize their potential to participate fully in all aspects of life” (Article 2).
As the United Nations intergovernmental platform for the Asia-Pacific region, ESCAP supports dialogue and regional cooperation to ensure the building of societies for all ages that leave no-one behind.
ESCAP supports preparations and follow-up for global processes related to population ageing such as, those related to MIPAA and the International Conference on Population and Development.
In accordance with ECOSOC resolution 2020/8, ESCAP organized the Asia-Pacific Intergovernmental Meeting on the Fourth Review and Appraisal of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing from 29 June to 1 July 2022. The Meeting adopted a report and an outcome document which will guide work on population ageing in Asia and the Pacific in the future.
ESCAP created a website dedicated to population ageing which also provides information on previous reviews and appraisals of the Madrid Plan of Action on Ageing in Asia and the Pacific. ESCAP compiled a policy repository of national policies on ageing and collection of good practices in Asia and the Pacific.
On a regular basis, ESCAP compiles and publishes data on ageing and issues reports, research papers, and policy briefs. The ESCAP Population Data Sheet 2021 as well as the datasheet on Older persons in ASEAN in numbers provide up-to-date information on population ageing and older persons.
Following the intergovernmental meeting on the fourth review and appraisal of MIPAA in Asia and the Pacific in 2022, ESCAP issued the Asia-Pacific Report on Population Ageing 2022: Trends, policies and good practices regarding older persons and population ageing.
ESCAP also supports governments in building capacity on ageing policies. The Fourth Review of the MIPAA is linked to such capacity-building activities. Member States are invited to request support in this regard from ESCAP.