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This paper aims to assess Cambodia's national development plans in relation to the priorities and action areas of the Doha Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2022-2031 (DPoA), which was adopted in March 2022 as a revitalized and strengthened agreement between the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and their development partners. The objective is to identify gaps and needs for effective implementation and suggest policy adjustments based on the analysis.

In the absence of Cambodia's National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2024-2028 at the time of writing, this paper utilizes Cambodia’s Pentagonal Strategy Phase I (PSI) as a guiding framework for the NSDP 2024-2028. Comparing the DPoA and PSI provides invaluable insights for the forthcoming NSDP, informs necessary policy actions for LDC graduation, aligns DPoA implementation with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and highlights areas where Cambodia should advocate for greater international support to ensure a sustainable graduation process and successful DPoA implementation.

An assessment of the alignment between Cambodia's Pentagon Strategy Phase 1 and the DPoA points to varying levels of consistency across six focus areas, with notable strengths in investing in people and mobilizing international support. Acknowledging the importance of all sectors, addressing discrepancies, and improving alignment between national and DPoA strategies are critical for successful implementation and the sustainable graduation of LDCs. Opportunities for enhancement and tighter collaboration lie within the synergies between DPoA and PSI, especially in leveraging science, technology, and innovation, boosting international trade of LDCs, regional integration, and improving resilience against future shocks for risk-informed sustainable development.