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The transportation sector releases approximately 25 per cent of global carbon dioxide (CO2) through the combustion of fossil fuels. By 2050, the global share of CO2 from the transportation sector will increase significantly. At COP 26, in its Nationally Determined Contribution, Thailand pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30-40 per cent by 2030. Thailand also committed to reaching carbon neutrality by 2050 and net zero GHG emissions by 2065. The National Energy Plan, which is being updated by the Ministry of Energy, will focus not only on energy security but also plans to help achieve the carbon neutrality goal. As the transportation sector in Thailand emits significant quantities of CO2, one of the key strategies is the 30@30 Electric Vehicle Policy, which establishes a target for Zero Emission Vehicles, defined as Battery Electric Vehicles and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, to constitute 30 per cent of total automotive production by 2030. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) understands the importance of supporting the Thai Government through the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE). The study was conducted with technical support from experts to understand the challenges and opportunities with regard to electric vehicles (EVs) in public land transportation. The study identified types of public transportation systems and target areas that have potential to convert from internal combustion engines (ICEs) to EVs. The study started with a literature survey of EV promotion in Thailand with feedback obtained from relevant organizations in four target provinces prior to conducting surveys to analyse the potential for reducing CO2 emissions and assessing the cost-effectiveness of investment in conversion.